A type of monoclonal antibody used in cancer detection or therapy. Monoclonal antibodies are laboratory-produced substances that can locate and bind to cancer cells.
A substance being studied in the treatment of cancer. A6 is a small piece of a protein called urokinase (an enzyme that dissolves blood clots or prevents them from forming). It is a type of antiangiogenesis agent and a type of antimetastatic agent. Also called urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-derived peptide A6.
An enzyme that is normally found in healthy kidneys. It may be found at high levels in the urine when there are kidney problems. It is used as a biomarker to detect damage to the kidneys caused by drugs and other agents. It may also be used to diagnose certain kidney and liver disorders. Also called alanine aminopeptidase.
An inherited condition in which the body either does not make enough of a protein called alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) or makes an abnormal form of AAT. AAT is made in the liver and helps protect the body’s organs, especially the liver and lungs, from damage. AAT deficiency can lead to serious lung conditions (including emphysema and bronchiectasis) and liver conditions (including cirrhosis, hepatitis, and liver cancer). It may also cause inflammation of the blood vessels and a rare skin condition that causes painful lumps on or under the skin. Lung problems caused by AAT deficiency almost always occur in adults, but liver and skin problems may occur in both adults and children. AAT deficiency is caused by a mutation (change) in a gene called SERPINA1. Also called alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.
A drug used to reduce the amount of testosterone made in patients with advanced symptomatic prostate cancer for which no other treatment options are available. It belongs to the family of drugs called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists. Also called Plenaxis.
Describes a group of proteins in a cell that work together to help remove extra cholesterol and certain fats from tissue in the body. Changes in the ABCA1 pathway may lead to diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Drugs or substances that affect this pathway are being studied in the prevention and treatment of some diseases.
A staging system for prostate cancer that uses ABCD. “A” and “B” refer to cancer that is confined to the prostate. “C” refers to cancer that has grown out of the prostate but has not spread to lymph nodes or other places in the body. “D” refers to cancer that has spread to lymph nodes or to other places in the body. Also called Jewett staging system and Whitmore-Jewett staging system.
The area of the body that contains the pancreas, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, and other organs.
Having to do with the abdomen, which is the part of the body between the chest and the hips that contains the pancreas, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, and other organs.
A procedure used to examine the organs in the abdomen. An ultrasound transducer (probe) is pressed firmly against the skin of the abdomen. High-energy sound waves from the transducer bounce off tissues and create echoes. The echoes are sent to a computer, which makes a picture called a sonogram. Also called transabdominal ultrasound.